A provision or task to implement adopted policies.
The cost of housing as a percentage of household
income. Housing is considered unaffordable when
housing costs exceed a threshold percentage – nationally
that standard ranges from 25 to 33 percent. Housing
costs considered in this guideline generally include
taxes and insurance for owners, and sometimes include
utility costs. When the monthly carrying costs of
a home exceed 30-35% of household income, then the
housing is considered unaffordable for that household.
everyone is working together harmoniously as a unit
toward the same objective or purpose.
A baseline is a description or measure of the current
state. It is the starting point from which an organization
of measuring performance against established standards
of best practice.
Bicycle boulevards are low-traffic neighborhood
streets that have been optimized for bicycling.
They are a facility shared with motorists and identified
by signs and occasional pavement markings.
term that encompasses bicycle lanes, bicycle paths
and bicycle boulevards.
Refers to the human-created surroundings
that provide the setting for human activity, ranging
from large-scale civic districts, commercial and
industrial buildings, to neighborhoods and individual
Buy In: A
state of mind that occurs when an individual or
group understands and commits to a common goal or
Carbon Neutral: Being
carbon neutral refers to the practice of balancing
carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere from
burning fossil fuels, with renewable energy that
creates a similar amount of useful energy, so that
the net carbon emissions are zero, or alternatively
using only renewable energy.
mixed-use areas of high-density housing, employment
and retail that are pedestrian-oriented and well
served by public transportation and roads. Centers
are defined as the central city, regional centers,
town centers, station communities and main streets,
as defined by Metro. Mixed-use centers in the metropolitan
region include the central city (Portland), seven
regional centers (the downtown areas of Hillsboro,
Beaverton, Oregon City and Gresham, as well as the
Clackamas Town Center, Washington Square and Gateway
shopping areas), 30 town centers and numerous main
streets and station communities.
Downtown Portland is the Portland area’s central
city and serves as the hub of business and cultural
activity in the region. It has the most intensive
form of development for both housing and employment,
with high-rise development common in the central
City Beautiful Movement:
The architectural and town planning
style of the early 20th century that advocated the
treatment of a city as a work of art.
cooperative effort between and among governmental
entities (as well as with private partners) through
which the partners work together to achieve common
goals. Such collaboration can range from very informal,
ad hoc activities to more planned, organized and
formalized ways of working together. They share
a sense of public purpose, leverage resources to
yield improved outcomes, and bridge traditional
geographic, institutional and functional boundaries.
Small plots of land rented by individuals from some
organization that holds title or lease to the land.
The City of Portland runs a Community Garden Program
that includes 30 garden sites with over 1,000 plots.
Compact Urban Communities:
Urban locations which offer transportation,
housing and shopping choices that reduce the need
for automobile travel and support an efficient development
Complete Street: Designed
and operated to ensure safety travel for all users
– pedestrians, cyclists, transit-riders and motorists.
Typically, complete streets include sidewalks, crosswalks,
bike lanes and other features and amenities.
A document that identifies that
guides growth and development for a local jurisdiction.
A condition characterized by unstable traffic flows
that creates stop-and-go movement on a transportation
facility. Nonrecurring congestion is caused by actions
such as special events, weather, and/or traffic
accidents. Recurring congestion is caused by problematic
facility design at a key location or constant excess
volume compared with capacity.
management of resources, such as water and energy,
so as to eliminate waste or maximize efficiency
measurement of the number of people, dwelling units,
or lots in relationship to a specified amount of
land. Density is a measurement used generally for
A set of design parameters for development that
apply within a design district, subdistrict, or
overlay zone. The guidelines are adopted public
statements of intent and are used to evaluate the
acceptability of a project’s design.
physical alteration and/or improvements of land
which leads to subdivision of land; construction
of any building or structure; road development;
installation of utilities; grading; mineral extraction;
the deposit of refuse, debris, or fill materials;
or the clearing of natural vegetation cover with
the exception of agricultural activities and trails.
A process to influence local economic conditions
by stimulating private investment in existing and
potential firms, thereby expanding an area’s employment
Green Building (also,
Green Design): Building design that
yields environmental benefits, such as savings in
energy, building materials, and water consumption,
or reduced waste generation. Green development minimizes
energy consumption and minimizes pollution and the
generation of wastes, while maximizing the re-use
of materials and creating healthful indoor environments.
Green Street: A
street designed and constructed to integrate a system
of stormwater management within its right of way
in order to reduce the amount of water that is piped
directly to streams and rivers. Green streets typically
incorporate green infrastructure, such as street
trees and landscaped amenity zones, both for aesthetics
and to enhance the environment.
Components of the atmosphere that contribute to
global warming, including water vapor, carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. Human activities
have added to the levels of most of these naturally
term applied to open spaces in urban areas, including
parks, preserves and public or private lands. Greywater:
Domestic wastewater that does not contain human
wastes such as tub, shower or washing machine water
that is recycled especially for use in gardening
or for flushing toilets.
Water under the earth’s surface, often confined
to aquifers capable of supplying wells and springs.
The use by a community of a variety
of combined techniques to establish the amount,
type and rate of growth desired by the community
and to channel that growth into designated areas.
Growth management policies can be implemented through
growth rates, zoning, capital improvement programs,
public facilities, ordinances, urban growth boundaries
and other programs.
physical location or type of environment in which
an organism or biological population lives or occurs.
Historic Preservation: The process of preserving
part of a community, from an individual building
or part of a building to a whole neighborhood (including
roadways and waterways), because of its historical
persons residing in a single dwelling unit. Household
Size: All of the persons who occupy a housing unit.
(Latin, short for “ibidem,” “the same place”) is
the term used to provide an endnote or footnote
citation or reference for a source that was cited
in the previous endnote or footnote.
Surface through which water cannot
penetrate, such as a roof, road, sidewalk or paved
parking lot. The amount of impervious surface increases
with development and establishes the need for drainage
facilities to carry the increased run-off.
Actions, procedures, programs or techniques that
carry out policies.
Projects that use vacant or underutilized
land in areas that were previously developed.
physical systems and services that support development
and people, such as streets and highways, transit
services, airports, water and sewer systems and
An initiative is an activity that supports accomplishment
of an objective.
Light Rail Line:
A public rail transit line that usually operates
at grade level and that provides high capacity,
regional level transit service. A light rail line
is designed to share a street right-of-way although
it may also use a separate right-of-way or easement.
In land-use and transit planning, generally refers
to different compatible land uses located within
a single structure or in close proximity to each
ability to move about the region from one location
particular form of travel (e.g., walking, bicycling,
driving alone, carpooling or vanpooling, bus, train,
ferry or airplane).
Open Space: Any
open land or other space (such as a river) which
is predominately lacking in structural development.
Open Space includes natural areas, wetlands, open
water, wildlife habitats, farmlands, grazing areas
and park recreation areas.
Recreation activities that require
limited physical exertion on behalf of the participant.
Examples include bird watching, walking or photography.
Development: The development and
siting of housing, commercial space, services, and
job opportunities in a manner that accommodates
walking. Such development is intended to create
more vibrant urban areas and to reduce dependency
on automobile travel.
action, activity or strategy carried out in response
to adopted policy to achieve a specific objective.
Policies and programs establish the “who,” “how,”
and “when” for carrying out the “what” and “where”
of goals and objectives.
Public Art: works
of art in any media that has been planned and executed
with the specific intention of being sited or staged
in the public domain, usually outside and accessible
Facilities and infrastructure, including sanitary
and storm sewer systems, water supply, energy, telecommunications,
public safety and emergency services, schools, libraries
and other facilities.
The process by which waste materials are collected
and reused as “raw” materials for new products.
restoration and/or improvement of an existing structure
The value of social networks that people can draw
on to solve common problems. The benefits of social
capital flow from the trust, reciprocity, information
and cooperation associated with social networks.
A general category that includes garbage, trash,
refuge, paper, ashes, metals, glass, plastics, construction
debris, rock, soil, abandoned vehicles and machine
parts, discarded appliances, yard wastes, manure
and other materials.
individuals, groups, and parties who either affect
or are affected by the organization, both internally
and externally. Stakeholders are involved or consulted
as part of the strategic planning process so that
their views, needs, and concerns are given consideration
during the development of organizational goals,
objectives and strategies. They may also provide
input related to outcome measures.
responsibility for actions affecting the natural
or built environment. Positive stewardship demonstrates
acceptance of this responsibility through the continuous
improvement of environmental performance by individuals,
communities, the private sector and governmental
A strategic plan is a disciplined, coordinated,
systematic, and sustained effort that enables an
organization to fulfill its mission and achieve
The development of housing, commercial
space, services, and job opportunities in close
proximity to public transportation. Such development
is intended to reduce dependency on automobiles,
as well as better linking residences to jobs and
State in which all residents of
a geographic or political region have access to
most types of health care. Universal health care
is provided in most developed countries and many
developing countries across the globe.
Urban Design: The
attempt to give form, in terms of both beauty and
function, to selected urban areas or to whole cities.
Urban design is concerned with the location, mass
and design of various urban components and combines
elements of urban planning, architecture and landscape
Urban Sprawl: Haphazard
growth or outward extension of an urban area resulting
from uncontrolled or poorly managed development.
The distance which an able-bodied person would reasonably
be expected to walk. Commonly understood as ¼
mile, or about 10 minutes’ walk.
land area from which surface runoff drains into
a stream, channel, lake, reservoir or other body
of water. Large watersheds, like the Mississippi
River basin contain thousands of smaller watersheds.
The division of a city by legislative regulations
into areas, or zones, which specify allowable uses
for real property and size restrictions for buildings
within these areas; a program that carries out policies
of the City’s Comprehensive Plan.